Sharif Hussein, commander of the Arab Revolt against the Ottoman Empire in June 1916

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Sharif Hussein, the prince of Mecca, led a military uprising against the Ottomans, in close coordination with Great Britain. The British promised him a kingdom over liberated Arab lands, headed by himself and his two sons, Abdullah and Faisal. The younger son Faisal became king of Syria in 1918-1920 and then king of Iraq until 1933. His dynasty was overthrown by a military revolution in 1958. His older son Abdullah established a kingdom in Jordan, which survives to this day. Sharif Hussein is the great-great grandfather of King Abdullah II, the current king of Jordan.