Baathist officers celebrating the March 8, 1963 coup that toppled President Nazem al-Qudsi and Prime Minister Khaled al-Azm

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From left to right: Saleem Hatum, Mohammad Umran, Salah Jadid. These three men went on to become sworn enemies and each died a tragic death. Jadid became Army Chief of Staff in 1963-1966, then launched a coup against President Amin al-Hafez in February 1966. He established himself as Syria's military strongman until he too was toppled in November 1970. Jadid was arrested and remained in jail until his death at the age of 67 in 1993. Mohammad Umran went on to become Minister of Defense under President Amin al-Hafez. He was toppled by Jadid in 1966 and exiled to Lebanon where armed men tracked him down and shot him in 1972. Hatum tried to launch a coup d'etat in 1967 and when it failed, he was arrested, tortured, and executed by his fellow Baathists. All of them at the time of the Baath takeover were below the age of 40.